Motivation has come from motives which are the expression of human needs by a human being. Motivation is the process of inducing persons to experience needs for certain desired behavior so that organizational efficiency for the achievement of the goals.
“motivation is the art of stimulating someone or oneself to take desired course of action.”
Characteristics of motivation
- Motivation is an internal feeling. Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that generates within an individual.
- Person in totality, not in part, is motivated. Each individual in the organization is a self-contained and inseparable unit and his all needs are interrelated.
- Motivation is the product of anticipated values from an action and the perceived probability that these values will be achieved by the action.
Motivation is the most important factor determining organizational efficiency. All organizational facilities will go waste in the lack of motivated people to utilize these facilities effectively. Every superior in the organization must motivate his subordinates for the right types of behavior.
Important Point Related to Motivation
- Motivation is a psychic force that drives an individual towards goal realizations.
- Rensis Likert has called motivation as the core of the management.
- Motivation is derived from the Latin word movere which means to move.
- Need = physiological + psychological
- If the individual has a high intensity for achieving the goal then his level of motivation is also high.
- Motivation- A goal-directed behavior.
- Motivation is related to satisfaction. Satisfactions refer to the contentment experiences of an individual which he derives out of need fulfillment.
- Persons motivated in totality, not in part.
- Nature of motivation: based on motives, affected by motivating, goal-directed behavior, related to satisfaction, a person motivated in totality, complex process.
- Need is a natural and biological phenomenon in an individual.
- Three types of need
- Primary need – also called psychological, basic, biological, or unlearned need which is essential for the survival of human beings e.g. food, cloth, shelter, sex, sleep breathe.
- Secondary need – also called learned need or derived need which we learn from the experiences and individual e.g. need for status, recognition, power, and achievement.
- General need– This need is between primary and secondary needs e.g. need for competence, curiosity, manipulation, affection.
- Need > Tension arises > goal-directed behavior > goal fulfillment in favorable environment > satisfaction then another need arises so
- it is a continuous process and if need is not fulfilled then frustrations arise.
- Three things arise because of non-fulfillment of needs-
- Flight: people quit the job.
- Apathy: lack of interest or enthusiasm, employees do everything except his work
- Aggressions: aggressive and frustrated and harm themselves or their surroundings by their behavior.
- Some important words which may ask sometimes-
- Sympathy- the feelings of being sorry for someone.
- Empathy- The ability to understand & share the feelings of someone else.
- Apathy – Lack of interest or enthusiasm.
- Sense of competence- It denotes the extent to which an individual consistently regards himself as capable of doing a job.
- Locus of control – It means whether people believe that they are in control of events or events control them. An individual with an internal locus of control tends to be a high performer than those with an external locus of control.
- Ability = knowledge+ skill
- Role ambiguity – The individual is not as clear as to what is expected from him in the job situation.
- Role conflict- when the persons are engaged in two or more jobs simultaneously and these jobs are mutually incompatible.