Some of the questions such as what makes a leader effective? Is his success due to his personality or his behavior or the types of followers he has or the situations in which he works or a combination of all these and to answer these all questions different leadership theories arises? Theories such as
1) Trait theory.
2) Behavioral theory.
3) Situational theory.
4) System theory.
1) TRAIT THEORY
Given by Bernard. It is defined as relative enduring quality of an individual. Personal qualities. It was a hypothesis that a person with a certain trait could become a successful leader. Innate qualities and acquirable qualities include in this. Innate qualities mean by birth or god gifted or natural qualities. Leaders are born not made. Acquirable qualities- acquired or learned through training and experiences.
2) BEHAVIORAL THEORY
A leader is known for what he does rather than what he is. Leadership is shown by a person’s acts more than by his traits. It includes two-approach
- Task-oriented and,
- Relationship oriented.
Task related functions also called problem-solving functions as they relate to providing solutions to the problem faced by the groups in performing the jobs and activities. Group related functions include social functions, related to mediating disputes and individual feel value.so if an individual is able to perform both the roles successfully then he would be an effective leader.
3) SITUATIONAL AND CONTINGENCY THEORY
It is given by R.M Stogdill. It is first applied in Armed force of Germany. It means situations in which leadership is exercised. It depends on two factors
- Leader behavior: leader behavior includes leader characteristics and leader hierarchical position.
- Situational factors: Situational factors include subordinate characteristics, group factors, leader situation, organization factor (climate, culture)
4) SYSTEM THEORY
Behavior is an emergent phenomenon resulting from interactions among subsystems. It suggests that leadership is an emergent phenomenon in the form of integrative leadership out of interactions of agents (leader & followers) within variables lying inside and outside the organizations. From this theory four types of leadership emerge-
- Formal leadership
- Emergent leadership based on skills
- Shared leadership
- Integrative leadership.
System theory of leadership takes as a holistic approach as many variables affect the leadership.
Functional leadership- It influences positively. It includes setting goals, motivating employees, raising the level of morale, building team spirit, effective in two-way communications.
Dysfunctional leadership- It influences negatively. Ineffective leadership, unfavorable to employees, poor human relations, emotion immaturity.
It is the pattern of behavior which a leader adopts while influencing the behavior of his subordinate. Leadership style is based on two approach.
- Behavioral approach
- Situational approach.
Behavioral approach of leadership style includes-
- Power orientation.
- Leadership as a continuum.
- Likert’s management style.
- Employee production orientation
- Managerial grid
- Tridimensional grid
Situational approach of leadership style includes-
1) Fiedler’s contingency model.
2) Hersey Blanchard’s model.
3) Path goal model.
Explanation of Behavioral approach of leadership style-
1) Power orientation:
Based on the degree of authority that a leader uses in influencing the behavior of his subordinates. Under this, there are three leadership styles.
- Autocratic style: also known as authoritarian, directive, Monothetic. A manager centralizes decision making power in himself. Negative leadership. It includes strict autocrat- follows the autocratic style in a very strict sense, negative motivation. Benevolent autocrat Manager centralizes decision making power in himself but follows positive motivation.
- participative style: It is also called democratic, ideographic, consultative. Participation means mental and emotional involvement to contribute to group goals. He decentralizes decision-making process, he emphasizes consultation and participation of his subordinates. As because of motivation productivity will be high.
- Free rein or laissez-faire: It means complete freedom to his subordinates as the contribution of the manager is almost nil. It helps to develop a subordinate independent personality. As manager makes policies, plans, and entire process left to subordinates.
2) Leadership as a continuum
Given by Tannenbaum & Schmidt. In this leadership style on a continuum moving from the authoritarian leadership( boss centered )at the one end to free rein leadership( subordinate centered) at another end.
3) Likert’s management system
Given by Rensis Likert’s. It includes four systems of management such as
- Exploitative: (No trust and confidence in subordinates)
- Benevolent: (confidence but just as a master has confidence in his servant)
- Participative: (substantial interest and trust among workers)
- Democratic: (complete trust and confidence towards employed, subordinate feel free)
4) Employee production-oriented:
It is based on two concepts
- Employee orientation- It stresses the relationship of the employee’s jobs, every individual is important and interest in everyone, as it is based on a democratic concept. Give importance to employee relations.
- Production orientation- Emphasis on production, technical aspects of the job, as employees are taken as a tool for accomplishing job. Based on the authoritarian concept. This also includes two things
- Initiating structure: Initiating structure refers to the leader’s behavior in delineating relationships between himself and members of the workgroup, well-defined pattern of organization, channel of communication, methods, and procedure. (Basically, focus on work).
- Considerations: Considerations include friendship, mutual trust, respect, warmth in the relationship between leader and members of staff. High considerations& low structure, high structure& high considerations (team-best) Low structure & low considerations, high structure & low considerations (task-related)
5) Managerial Grid
Given by Blake and mouton. It is based on two factors 1) Task orientation/concern for production and 2) relations orientation/concern for people. It consists of
- (1, 9 called country club)-high concern for people& low concern for production.
- (1, 1 called impoverished) – low concern for people& low concern for production.
- (9, 9 called team-based) –high concern for production & high concern for people.
- (9, 1 called task-based) -high concern for production & low concern for people.
- (5, 5 called middle road) – in a middle path of production and people.
6) Tridimensional Grid
Given by Reddin. It is also known as 3D management. Three-dimensional includes
- Task orientation: Task-oriented includes planning, organizing, controlling things towards goal achievement.
- Relationship orientation: Relationship oriented includes personal relationships, mutual trust, feelings.
- Effectiveness: Effectiveness is defined as the extent to which a manager is successful in his position. When the style adopted is appropriate to a given situation it is called effective and when the style is inappropriate to a given situation it is called ineffective.
Explanations of situational approach
1) Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Appropriateness of leadership styles depending on their matching with situational requirements. It consists of three elements
- leadership style including (TO task-oriented RO relationship-oriented)
- Situational variables: Situational variables include 1) leader position power 2) task structure 3) leader-member relations.
- Interrelationships. Fielder uses the two types of scores to measure the style adopted by a leader
- Score on the least preferred coworker. (lpc it depends on liking/disliking, friendly/unfriendly)
- Scores on assumed similarity (AS it based on the degree to which leader perceived group members to be like him.
2) Hersey’s Blanchard’s situational model
Given by Hersey’s Blanchard’s. Based on the need for maturity leader has to match his leadership style. It is also called life cycle theory of leadership. Two basic considerations 1) leadership styles (TO Task-oriented & RORelations oriented 2) maturity of subordinates depends on their willingness and ability. It includes four combinations
- Telling – low ability + low willingness= low maturity.
- Selling- low ability+ high willingness= low to moderate maturity
- Participating- high ability+ low willingness=moderate to high maturity.
- Directing high ability + high willingness= high maturity.
3) Path goal model of leadership
Given by Robert house. It is a combination of situational leadership+ vrooms expectancy theory of motivation. It includes different goal paths such as leader identifies subordinate needs>appropriate goals are established>leader connects reward with goal>leader provides assistance on employee path towards goal>employee become satisfied & accepts the leader>effective performance occurs>both employees & organization are better able to reach the goal. It includes leadership styles
- Directive-low task, high relations
- Supportive – low task, low relations
- Participative- high task, high relations
- Achievement-oriented- high task, low relations.
Locus of control refers to alternative benefits whether the employee’s achievement are the product of his own effort (internal locus of control) or the result of outside forces (external locus of control)
It also includes two things 1)characteristics of subordinates – locus of control, willingness, self-perceived ( ability to work or perform) 2) work environment includes nature of task , formal authority systems and work group.
SOME IMPORTANT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP GIVEN BY:
- Trait theory- Bernard.
- Situational/contingency theory- R M Stogdill.
- Great man theory or charismatic theory– Pluto’s Republic & Confucius’s analects.
- Followers theory- F M Sansford.
- Half-life cycle theory- A K Korman.
- Life cycle theory continued- Paul Hersey’s Blanchard’s.
- Leadership as a continuum– Tannenbaum & Schmidt
- Management system theory- Renisis liket’s.
- Managerial grid- Blake& Mouton
- Tridimensional grid- V j REDINN
- Contingency model of leadership- Fiedleƌ’s
- Path goal model- Robert house.
- Transformational- James Burns.
- Transactional- Adams.